grimace scale

This four-in-one poem responds to images showing artificial structures called vesicles attaching to cells (where vesicles, membranes, and nuclei are respectively red, green, and blue). The images are from Juan Martinez's research on developing experimental painkillers for abdominal surgery recovery. Three experimental poems were written in response to each part of the cells to explore the ethics of nano-painkillers. The title of the final combined poem, “grimace scale”, refers to how scientists assess pain in nonhumans during animal testing.  

Image credits: Juan Martinez

 © 2020 by Caitlin Stobie and the Beales Research Group. Cover image credit: Zexi Xu.